Definitions/ Terms/ Acronyms

Definitions/ Terms/ Acronyms


Accommodations: Instructional techniques, additional supports or specialized services to help a student make progress or demonstrate learning.

Adaptive Physical Education (APE): Physical education which may be adapted or modified to address the individualized needs of children and youth who have gross motor delays.

Administrative Review: A meeting where you may present complaints to the superintendent of your school district regarding your child’s evaluation, educational placement, or the provision of special education.

Annual Review: A scheduled meeting of school staff members and parents to develop, review, and revise a student’s IEP goals and objectives and to determine the appropriateness of new or continued services.

Assistive Technology: Any item, piece of equipment or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities.

Case Conference: An informal meeting that allows you and/or your school district to review and interpret information regarding your child and his or her IEP in order to resolve problems.

Child Find: Children aged two through twenty-one who may be in need of special education and related services.

Child with a Disability: Those children evaluated and identified, in accordance with regulations governing special education, as having a cognitive disability, hearing impairment, speech or language impairment, autism, traumatic brain injury, visual impairment, emotional disability, orthopedic impairment, other health impairment, severe disability, multiple disabilities, developmental delays, or specific learning disability and who, because of these disabilities, need special education and related services.

Counseling Service: Services provided by a qualified social worker, psychologist, guidance counselor, or other qualified personnel.

Due Process: A series of steps safeguarded by law (IDEA) that protects the rights of parents and their children with disabilities.

Early Intervention: Specialized services provided to children, birth through age two, who are at risk for, or showing signs of, developmental delay.

Eligibility Meeting: A meeting of professional staff members and the parents that considers the individual needs of a student and determines whether the student is eligible for special education and related services.

Evaluation: Procedures used by a multidisciplinary team to determine whether a child has a disability and the nature and extent of the special education and related services the child needs.

FAPE (Free Appropriate Public Education): Special education and related services provided at public expense, under public supervision, and at no cost to parents. These services must meet the standards of the Ohio Department of Education and be provided through your child’s IEP.

General Curriculum: Refers to the curriculum that is used with non-disabled children.

Home School: The school that is the community in which the child resides.

IDEA: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004.

IDEIA: Individuals with Disabilities Improvement Act of 2004.

IEP (Individualized Education Program): A written plan of measurable, annual goals including short-term objectives and developed to meet your child’s needs according to federal and state regulations.

Impartial Due Process Hearing: Each district shall provide parents and other educational agencies an opportunity to have an impartial due process hearing which may be requested at any time.

Interpreter Services: Includes assisting learners with hearing impairments and deaf learners by providing interpretation in English and American Sign Language, transliteration in manual form of coded English or other coded forms of English.

Itinerant Services for a Preschooler with a Disability: Services provided by intervention specialist or related services personnel, which occur in the setting where the child, the child and parent(s) or the child and caregiver are located as opposed to services provided at a centralized location.

Least Restrictive Environment: The setting determined by the IEP team that gives the child as much time as possible in general education settings and activities while meeting the child’s learning and physical needs. It also means that special classes, separate schooling, or other removal of a child with disabilities from the general education environment occurs only when the nature or severity of the disability is such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily.

Local Education Agency (LEA): The public school system (i.e. Chesapeake Union Exempted Village Schools).

Mediation: A meeting that may be held if efforts to resolve an issue have failed at the school district level or after a due process hearing has been requested. A representative of the Ohio Department of Education may be asked to mediate the dispute.

Occupational Therapy: Services provided by a qualified therapist and includes improving, developing, or restoring functions impaired or lost through illness, injury or deprivation, improving the ability to perform tasks for independent functioning if functions are impaired or lost and preventing through early intervention, initial or further impairment or loss of function.

Orientation and Mobility Service: Services provided to blind or visually impaired students by a qualified personnel to enable those students to attain systematic orientation to and safe movement within their environments in school, home, community, etc.

Paraprofessional Service: Services provided by a school, county board or another educational agency who are adequately trained in the provision of special education and related services to children with disabilities. Paraprofessionals work under the supervision of teachers, intervention specialists, and/or related service providers.

Parent: A natural or adoptive parent, the parent with legal custody if the parents are separated or divorced, the guardian or custodian but not the state if the child is a ward of the state, a person acting in place of a parent (such as a grandparent or stepparent) with whom the child lives, or a person who is legally responsible for the child’s welfare, a surrogate parent who has been appointed in accordance with paragraph (1) of rule 3301-51-05 of the Administrative Code, or a child at the age of 18 may act on his or her own behalf.

Periodic Review: Those activities involved in reviewing each child’s IEP, and, if appropriate revising its provisions. A meeting must be held for this purpose at least once a year.

Physical Therapy: Services provided by a qualified physical therapist which emphasizes remediation of or compensation for mobility, gait, muscle strength, and postural deficits as it relates to the educational setting.

Re-Evaluation: A review by the IEP team that is required every three years or more often if necessary. It determines if updated information used to decide continuing eligibility for special education is needed and the types of information needed to determine the individual needs of the student.  

Referral: The established process whereby the names of children suspected as having a disability condition that may require special education and related services are forwarded to a designated person, in writing, for a multifactored and multidisciplinary evaluation.

Related Services: Transportation and such developmental, corrective, and other supportive services as are required to assist a child with a disability to benefit from special education. It may include speech-language pathology, physical therapy, occupational therapy, school health services, etc.

Special Education: Specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parent, to meet the unique needs of a child with disabilities, including classroom instruction, instruction in physical education, home instruction, and instruction in hospitals and institutions. The term also includes speech therapy or any other related service and vocational education if they consist of specially designed instruction at no cost to the parent.

Speech and Language Pathology Services: Include identification of children with speech or language impairments, diagnosis and appraisal of specific speech or language impairments, referral for medical or other professional attention necessary for the rehabilitation of speech or language impairments, provision of speech and language services for the rehabilitation or prevention of communicative impairments and counseling and guidance of parents, children, and teachers regarding speech and language impairments.

Standards (Ohio Academic Content Standards): The outline of the basic knowledge and skills that OHIO children will be taught in grades K-12 in the core academic areas.

Transition Services: A coordinated set of activities for a student with a disability that is designed within an outcome oriented process that promotes movement from school to post-school activities, including postsecondary education, vocational training, integrated employment (including supported employment), continuing adult services, independent living or community participation.

More definitions can be found in the Operating Standards for Ohio's Schools Serving Children with Disabilities and Whose IDEA is This?


Acronym - Agency/Organization
AAMR - American Association on Mental Retardation
ACB - American Council for the Blind
ABA - Applied Behavior Analysis
ADA - Americans with Disabilities Act
ADD - Attention Deficit Disorder OR Administration on Developmental  Disabilities
ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
AFB - American Foundation for the Blind
AG Bell - Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing
AOTA - American Occupational Therapy Association
APTA - American Physical Therapy Association
ASDC - American Society for Deaf Children
ASD - Autism Spectrum Disorder
ASHA - American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
ASL - American Sign Language
AT - Assistive Technology
AYP - Adequate Yearly Progress
BP - Bi-Polar Disorder
BSP - Behavior Support Plan
CAPD - Central Auditory Processing Disorder
CEC - Council for Exceptional Children
CD - Cognitive Disability
CHADD - Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
CLE - Center for Law and Education
CPRC - Community Parent Resource Center
DD - Developmental Disorder
DI - Differentiated Instruction
DOE - Department of Education
DRS - Department of Rehabilitative Services
DSM - Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders by the American Psychiatric Association
DSS - Department of Social Services
ED - Emotional Disturbance
EI - Early Intervention
ELL - English Language Learners
ERIC - Educational Resources Information Center
ESA - Educational Service Agency
ESY - Extended School Year
FAPE - Free Appropriate Public Education
FAS - Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
FRC - Federal Resource Center
FBA - Functional Behavior Assessment
FERPA - Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
HI - Hearing Impairment
IDA - The International Dyslexia Association
IAES - Interim Alternative Educational Setting
IAT - Intervention Assistance Plan
IDEIA - Individuals with Disabilities Improvement Act
IEE - Individualized Educational Evaluation
IEP - Individualized Education Program
IFSP - Individualized Family Service Plan
IQ - Intelligence Quotient
LDA - Learning Disabilities Association of America
LEA - Local Education Agency
LEP - Limited English Proficiency
LRE - Least Restrictive Environment
MD - Multiple Disabilities
MFE - Multifactored Evaluation
MRDD - Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities
NAEYC - National Association for the Education of Young Children
NAMI - National Association for the Mentally Ill
NAPAS - National Association of Protection and Advocacy Systems
NAPVI - National Association for Parents of Children with Visual Impairments
NASBE - National Association of State Boards of Education
NASDE - National Association of State Directors of Special Education
NCD - National Council on Disability
NCPIE - National Coalition for Parent Involvement in Education
NCLB - No Child Left Behind
NCLD - National Center for Learning Disabilities
NDSS - National Down Syndrome Society
NFB - National Federation for the Blind
NICHCY - National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities
NMHA - National Mental Health Association
NOPBC - National Organization of Parents of Blind Children
NPND - National Parent Network on Disabilities
NPPSIS - National Parent to Parent Support and Information System
OCD - Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
ODD - Oppositional Defiant Disorder
OHI - Other Health Impairment
O&M - Orientation and Mobility
ORC - Office for Civil Rights
OSEP - Office for Special Education Programs at the U.S. Department of
OSERS - Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services at the U.S. Department of Education
OT - Occupational Therapy
P&A - Protection and Advocacy Agency
PACER - Parent Advocacy Coalition for Educational Rights
PBIS - OSEP’s Center for Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports
PBS - Positive Behavior Support
PIRC - Parent Information and Resource Center
PDD - Pervasive developmental Disorder
PLOP - Present Levels of Performance
PT - Physical Therapy
PTI - Parent Training and Information Center
PTSD - Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
RSA - Rehabilitative Services Agency
SBAA - Spinal Bifida Association of America
SEA - State Education Agency
SERRC - Special Education Regional Resource Center
SLD - Specific Learning Disability
SLP - Speech and Language Pathology
SSA - Social Security Administration
SSI - Supplemental Security Income
SWD - Students with Disability
TBI - Traumatic Brain Injury
TSA - Tourette Syndrome Association, Inc
UCP - United Cerebral Palsy Associations
UCPA - United Cerebral Palsy Association
VI - Visual Impairment
504 - Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
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